FLOOR MAINTENANCE – THE BRITISH INSTITUTE OF CLEANING SCIENCE
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Written by John K.P.Edwards TD, MA, MCMI, FBICSc, formerly Technical Director of Russell Kirby Ltd., the four Manuals consider in detail Industrial Detergents, Floor Seals and Floor Polishes used to maintain floors in a clean and hygienic condition. The fourth Manual lists possible Faults which may be experienced with each of the above, discusses likely Causes and suggests Remedies to correct each situation. The Manuals are based on ‘Floor Maintenance Materials: Their Choice and Uses’ first published by the same author in 1969, now up-dated and considerably extended with additional material in the light of recent developments.
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No. 1 INDUSTRIAL DETERGENTS
Introduction – Definition of dirt – History – Definition of detergent – Nature of dirt.
Requirements of a detergent – Action as a wetting agent – Removal of dirt – Emulsification and Suspension of dirt – Ease of rinsing – pH Scale – pH Values.
Types of detergent, each considered from the aspects of Composition and Uses:
Soap – Anionic – Non-ionic – Cationic – Amphoteric – Alkaline- Caustic Materials – Acid Cleaners – Detergent Crystals – Biological Agents, also Solvent-based detergent wax removers.
Factors affecting the choice of detergent: Type of dirt to be removed – Nature of the surface to be cleaned – Whether bactericidal properties are required – Quantity of dirt to be removed – Ease and safety of use – Value for money.
Storage and Dilution Rates
First published 2002, reprinted 2010. A5 size 45 pages Soft cover Wire binding ISBN 0 947567 50 X
No. 2 FLOOR SEALS
Introduction – History – Definitions – 20 Requirements of a floor seal.
Types of seal, each considered with regard to Composition – Floors – Shelf life – Colour – Application – Number of coats – Odour – Brush cleaning solvent – Drying time – Interval between coats – Hardening time – Maintenance – Durability – Chemical resistance – Recoatability and Removability:
Oleo-resinous seals – One-pot Plastic Seals: Urea-formaldehyde, Polyurethane –
Two-pot Plastic Seals: Urea-formaldehyde, Polyurethane – Pigmented Seals: Synthetic rubber, Two-pot Polyurethane – Water-based Seals – Silicate Dressings.
Other Seals: Epoxy esters, Styrenated alkyds, Modified nitrocellulose, Two-pot polyesters, Two-pot epoxy resins, Styrene/butadiene lacquers, Shellac lacquers.
19 Factors affecting the choice of seal.
Comparison of Floor Seals Table.
Preparation of floors for sealing. Re-sealing of floors. Compatibility of Seals Table.
Application of seal – Brushes, Mops, Lambswool bonnets, Roller applicators, Turk’s Head brushes.
Maintenance of sealed floors.
Durability of seals – Comparative durability of seals table.
First published 2002, reprinted 2010. A5 size 125 pages Soft cover Wire binding ISBN 0 947567 55 0
No. 3 FLOOR POLISHES
Solvent-based Polish – History – Definitions – Floors on which it may and should not be applied – 19 Requirements of a solvent-based polish.
Raw materials – Natural waxes – Synthetic waxes – Solvents – Additives.
Types of solvent-based polish – Paste wax polish – Liquid wax polish.
Water-based Polish – History – Definitions – Floors on which it may and should not be applied – Requirements of a water-based polish.
Raw materials – Waxes – Alkali-soluble resins – Polymer resins – Additives.
Types of water emulsion floor polishes – Fully buffable – Semi-buffable – Dry-bright -Speciality products, including High-solids emulsions, Wash-and-wax emulsions, Acid-sensitive emulsions and Detergent-resistant emulsions (metallised emulsions).
Preparation of floors for polishing.
Application of water emulsion floor polish.
Maintenance of polished floors – with and without the use of polishing/scrubbing machines.
Factors affecting the choice of floor polish – Reason for polishing, the aim – Type of floor and whether sealed – Location of floor in a building – Availability of machines – Availability of labour – Availability of floor for cleaning – Present and future methods of maintenance – Durability required – Resistance to yellowing on ageing – Resistance to slip – Flammability – Cost, initial and over an extended period.
First published 2002, reprinted 2010. A5 size 69 pages Soft cover Wire binding ISBN 0 947567 60 7
No. 4 FAULTS – CAUSES & REMEDIES
The information in this Manual has been compiled from experience gained over a period of many years. It is intended as a ‘First Aid’ to help overcome snags that may arise from time to time during the course of floor maintenance. It is presented in tabular form with, in many instances, several possible alternative causes of the faults and a recommended remedy for each alternative cause.
Possible faults, their causes and remedies have been listed with respect to:
Part 1 – Industrial detergents Part 2 – Floor seals
Part 3 – Solvent-based polishes Part 4 – Water-based polishes
Examples of typical faults:
Industrial detergents: Loss of colour (or yellowing) of blue and green linoleum after using an alkaline detergent – Excess foam, or difficulty in rinsing foam away – Lack of foam – Detergent ineffective for removing wax build-up – Harsh on skin.
Floor seals: Seal thickened in container – Slow drying – Poor adhesion – Poor finish – Poor durability.
Solvent -based floor polishes: Floor appears slippery – Swirls (machine marks) remain on the floor after buffing – White haze in polish film – Polish being walked off – Slow drying.
Water-based floor polishes: Poor dry-bright qualities – ‘Curdled’ appearance in container – Floor appears slippery – Poor flow, streaky or patchy finish – Polish powdering – Slow drying – Poor durability – Poor removability.
First published 2002, reprinted 2010. A5 size 26 pages Soft cover Wire binding ISBN 0 947567 65 8